Karancin sani game da aluminum

Abubuwan da ke cikin hasken luminum suna ba ku bayani game da asalin halitta da ake amfani da su a cikin masana'antu da yawa. Aluminum an dauke shi azaman kayan sanyi. Yana da zamani, siriri, mai kauri da sumul. Kuna iya samun aluminum da aka yi amfani da shi don ƙirƙirar can, kwalban da sauran samfurori da yawa. Ga wasu bayanai masu ban sha'awa game da aluminum…

Wataƙila, ba za ku iya san haka ba

Bayan 'yan shekaru sama da ɗari da suka wuce, kilo kiloram na aluminum ya ƙare sama da rubles dubu.

A shekara ta 1899, masanan kimiyyar Birtaniyya suka gabatar wa Dmitrii Mendeleev sikeli, da aka yi da zinari da aluminium. Yanzu, kilogram na wannan ƙarfe yana ƙimar ƙasa da ruble. Sama da rabin rabin karni na mu, samar da alumomin duniya ya karu sama da sau 250, a halin yanzu ya kai kusan miliyan 5; cikin sharuddan girma, samar da aluminum ya zama na biyu bayan haɓakar baƙin ƙarfe.

Aluminium ya fi sau 2.5 sauƙin wuta fiye da baƙin ƙarfe, sau 3 - jan ƙarfe, sau 4 - azurfa. A yanayin zafin jiki na yau da kullun, aluminum ba ya yin tsatsa a cikin ruwa, baya yin iska a cikin iska, kuma yana tsayawa da ƙarfi game da aikin nitrogen, sulfur, carbon; an rufe saman karfe tare da fim mafi kariya na farin ciki. Reacts tare da halogens, caustic alkalis, sulfuric da hydrochloric acid, samar da salts. Ya tabbata a cikin hanyoyin maganin acetic da phosphoric acid, amma ruwan ammonia ya lalace. Wani ƙaramin aluminum, wanda aka tsoma shi a cikin nitric acid, ya zama mai tsayayya da yanayin wurare masu guba.

Karfe mai launin fari mai haske, yana narkewa a 660 ° C, yana shimfidawa zuwa cikin waya (tsawan mai tsawon mita 10,000 na nauyin 270g ne kawai kuma yana iya dacewa da akwatin wasa) kuma a sauƙaƙe shi cikin zanen baƙin ƙarfe daban-daban.

Alloying tare da karamin adadin wasu karafa (kuma yana samar da baƙin ƙarfe tare da kusan dukkanin ƙarfe) yana ƙaruwa da ƙarfe na aluminum. Fiye da baƙin ƙarfe 200 daban-daban an san su, kuma adadin su yana ƙaruwa kowace shekara, ingancin yana inganta. Babban aikace-aikace shine duralumin, wanda ban da aluminum ya ƙunshi kusan 5% jan ƙarfe, magnesium da baƙin ƙarfe. Silumin (4-12% silicon), lautal (4% jan ƙarfe, 2% titanium), scleron - aluminium na ƙarfe tare da jan ƙarfe, nickel, manganese, silicon da lithium suma sun shahara a masana'antu.

Aluminium da kayan adon sa sun taimaka wa mutum yin nasara da iskar, samar da haske da kuma dogayen layin dogo da jiragen ruwan teku. Ba abin mamaki ba shine yawanci ana kiran aluminium karfe. Fuka-fukai da fuselages na jirgin sama, sassan motar, jigon kyawawan gidaje, kujeru, gadaje, tebur da dubban sauran samfuran ana yin su da aluminum da baƙin ƙarfe. A Ingila kadai, a cikin bayan shekaru, sama da dubu 70 da aka sanya shinge na aluminium. Hakanan ana yin gine-ginen makarantu a can daga aluminum. An gina manyan gine-ginen da aka yi da aluminium (da filastik) a cikin Moscow - Fadar Taron Majalisa a cikin Kremlin da Fadar Shugabanni a Lenin Hills.

Ana buƙatar aluminium ta masana lantarki, dyers. Kodayake aikinta na lantarki kusan rabin ƙasa da jan ƙarfe, wayoyin almara sun sami nasarar maye gurbin jan ƙarfe. Tare da fadin da ke ba da izinin wutan lantarki iri ɗaya, sun fi sau 2 haske fiye da farin ƙarfe. Aluminium foda wani bangare ne na fenti da yawa.

Lokacin da ganye na bakin ciki na aluminium ya mai zafi har zuwa karfe 3-7 lokacin farin ciki, yana haskakawa da harshen wuta mai haske mai haske mai haske mai yawa. Amfani da alumini a cikin daukar hoto na walƙiyar mara hayaki yana kan wannan dukiya ne (wani walƙwalwar magnesium yana haifar da farin farin haze). Don saukakawa masu daukar hoto, ana samar da fitilu na musamman tare da kayan tsare aluminiran da kuma bakin ciki mai ƙyalli mai walƙiya. Lokacin da aka kunna halin yanzu, waya tana ƙyamar tsare.

Aluminihin ƙasa da aka haɗe da ruwan ƙarfe na wasu baƙin ƙarfe (baƙin ƙarfe, chromium, alli) yana ɗaukar oxygen daga ciki, yana maido da ƙarfe. Cakuda aluminum tare da magnetic iron ironide ana kiransa termite. Yawan zafin jiki na wannan cakuda yana da girma sosai, sabili da haka ana amfani da ma'adinan don walda da ƙarfe da kayayyakin ƙarfe. An cika su da bama-bamai masu fashewa da manyan bindigogi.

Ikon aluminum don haifar da adadin zafi lokacin da aka haɗa shi da oxygen wanda aka yi amfani da shi azaman sabon tsarin ingantaccen ƙarfe ƙarfe - aluminothermy.

An gano hanyoyin samar da abubuwan da ke faruwa tare da samar da ilimin kimiyya na NN Beketov kusan shekaru dari da suka gabata. Tun daga wannan lokacin, sun zama tartsatsi a cikin duk ƙasashen duniya. A cikin ƙarfe na yau da kullun, ana amfani da aluminothermy ba kawai don ƙone ƙarfe ba, har ma don rage karafa na baƙin ƙarfe daga ores - vanadium, molybdenum, manganese.


Lokacin aikawa: Jan-07-2020